What is CBD: The Benefits, Its Forms, Usage, and Risks

What is CBD

The Cannabis sativa plant has been used for centuries to treat various medical conditions [1]Bridgeman, M. B., et al. (2017, March). “Medicinal Cannabis: History, Pharmacology, And Implications for the Acute Care Setting.” Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 2017;42(3):180–188, … Continue reading. The most common use of cannabis today is as a recreational drug. However, there are also numerous other uses that include treating pain, anxiety, depression, insomnia, nausea, glaucoma, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, cancer, AIDS, arthritis, asthma, migraines, muscle spasms, psoriasis, and even acne.

As you read this, we will go into more detail about what cannabidiol (CBD) is, the health benefits, and how it is used in the body.

What Is CBD?

CBD is one of the substantial chemicals found in cannabis plants, including hemp and marijuana, both of which are classed as Cannabis Sativa plants. While THC is the primary psychoactive compound in marijuana, CBD is thought to be responsible for the vast majority of the medicinal benefits associated with the whole plant.

The health benefits of CBD as a chemical compound were largely ignored after decades of marijuana's other key chemical compound, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), taking precedence. The psychoactive ingredient in marijuana, THC, has dominated nearly all marijuana coverage since the dawn of the marijuana industry.

Now that researchers realize CBD offers its own therapeutic benefits, they are concentrating on understanding how people can use it in more detail. The benefits of Cannabis sativa and its compounds are becoming more evident as researchers continue to study this compound.

Where Does CBD Come From?

A common term for CBD is cannabidiol, which is one of over 114 cannabinoids present in cannabis plants. Cannabis plants contain more than 400 various compounds, most of which are unexplored in terms of their pharmacological effects.

There are several sources of CBD. However, the highest concentration is found in the resin glands, known as trichomes, of female cannabis plants. CBD can be found throughout all parts of the cannabis plant, but it is found in the highest concentrations in hemp plants.

Recently, CBD has been studied in greater depth, and we have gained a deeper understanding of what it is and how it works in the human body. As a result, those who have experienced difficulty being treated successfully before may benefit from this information, especially since it explains how it works in the human body and how it may be beneficial to their health conditions.

The Health Benefits of CBD

Taking CBD supplements as a supplement has only recently begun to become popular. CBD has been shown to be effective for a variety of health conditions, but there is not enough research yet to know if it works best for any one condition.

There are many different reasons for this, but one of the primary factors is that CBD has a polypharmacological effect, which means that it can impact multiple different areas of the body simultaneously, as opposed to only one at a time. More studies are still needed to discover how CBD works in humans, particularly in clinical trials.

Research on CBD is usually conducted first by determining what issues need to be addressed with the help of ECS alterations and determining which diseases are linked to alterations in the ECS. Therefore, this intervention aims to restore balance and normal functionality to the ECS in the hope that this will improve some or all symptoms of chronic diseases or even prevent future illnesses from occurring. [2]Massi, P., Solinas, M., Cinquina, V., & Parolaro, D. (2013). “Cannabidiol as potential anticancer drug.” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 75(2), 303-312, … Continue reading

This finding has been borne out in several clinical trials. It has been shown that alterations in the ECS appear to be associated with many disease states. Such diseases include cancer, cardiovascular disease, spinal cord injury, obesity, metabolic syndrome, osteoporosis, neuropathic pain, and multiple sclerosis.

As we will be looking into the details of studies that have examined the possibility of using CBD as a treatment for a variety of health conditions, we will also explore the impact of CBD on the welfare of these individuals who are suffering from specific health conditions.

1. Anxiety

A wide variety of anxiety disorders are afflicted by anxiety, with one type being social anxiety. Social anxiety is an intense fear of interacting with others due to perceived inadequacy. Some people suffer from specific phobias such as claustrophobia, agoraphobia, arachnophobia, and acrophobia.

These fears often stem from childhood trauma, and they can cause extreme distress and interfere with everyday life. Fortunately, new research suggests that cannabidiol (CBD) could help alleviate symptoms associated with anxiety disorders.

According to a 2017 study published in Frontiers in Pharmacology, one study tested the effects of CBD supplementation on the anxiety that people experience when speaking in public.

In order to collect data on the effectiveness of CBD, 60 healthy human participants were randomly assigned into one of three groups: placebo, 1 mg clonazepam, or 100, 300, or 900 mg of CBD.

There was no effect of 100 mg CBD or 900 mg CBD on subjective anxiety after the speech in the study, while 300 mg CBD was found to reduce subjective anxiety measures.

It is similar to the results obtained from numerous animal studies where the efficacy curve was observed as an inverted bell-shaped curve: too much or too little CBD did not seem to be associated with reduced anxiety, but a moderate amount of CBD did.

Likewise, a study carried out by Chaga found that CBD supplementation was found to prevent the anxiety side effects of THC. So, there may be some health benefits for those who may need to take medical marijuana but cannot cope with the side effects. [3]Bergamaschi MM, Queiroz RH, Chagas MH, de Oliveira DC, De Martinis BS, Kapczinski F, et al. “Cannabidiol reduces the anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in treatment-naïve social phobia … Continue reading

2. Arthritis

While many studies show that CBD and THC can be beneficial for people with arthritis, no studies show a positive effect on arthritis with CBD alone. In fact, even though CBD alone can reduce inflammation in joints, there are no studies on CBD alone in humans.

One of the most promising treatments for rheumatoid arthritis has been among the recently developed drugs, Sativex, which is a 1:1 combination of THC and CBD. This drug has shown promising results in clinical trials.

There was a study conducted by Blake at the Royal National Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases in Bath, the UK, in 2006 that showed Sativex had a significant analgesic effect, which reduced symptoms of the disease.

In this study, five patients were randomized, controlled by placebo for a period of five weeks, and were enrolled in parallel groups in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. [4]Blake DR, Robson P, Ho M, Jubb RW, McCabe CS. “Preliminary assessment of the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a cannabis-based medicine (Sativex) in the treatment of pain caused by rheumatoid … Continue reading

With the success of drugs like Sativex, it's increasingly evident that different cannabinoids are capable of working together as part of a broader treatment approach for specific diseases and ailments. However, there is still much work to be done to establish what these individual compounds, such as CBD alone, can accomplish.

3. Anticarcinogenic Properties

There have been multiple studies that have shown cannabinoids to have anticarcinogenic properties. An examination of CBD as an anticancer drug in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published in 2013 found that it may have some potential for being an effective anticancer drug. (13)

In this study, it was determined that CBD showed several antiproliferative properties, including proapoptotic, inhibiting cancer cell migration, adhesion, and invasion, as well as antiproliferative effects. Several types of cancer have been shown to be modulated by CBD in preclinical and animal studies. Some of the cancers included in this study are breast cancers, lung cancers, leukemia, colon cancers, gliomas, and thyroid cancers. [5]Torres, S., Lorente, M., Rodriguez-Fornes, F., Hernandez-Tiedra, S., Salazar, M., Garcia-Taboada, E., . . . Velasco, G. (2011). “A Combined Preclinical Therapy of Cannabinoids and Temozolomide … Continue reading [6]Massi, P., Solinas, M., Cinquina, V., & Parolaro, D. (2013). “Cannabidiol as potential anticancer drug.” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 75(2), 303-312, … Continue reading

The properties of CBD are promising. The effectiveness of CBD as a cancer therapy should therefore be confirmed by further research on human subjects. Nevertheless, CBD could be used for both cancer treatment as well as prevention of cancer in those who are at risk of it.

4. Chronic Pain

The analgesic properties of CBD have been demonstrated by researchers in combination with other cannabinoids, including THC. However, human research trials for CBD as chronic pain relief medications have yet to be performed to see whether these analgesic properties are also visible in humans. [7]Russo, E. B. (2008). “Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management”,  4(1), 245–259, … Continue reading

5. Alzheimer's Disease

A degenerative disease that affects millions of people worldwide, Alzheimer's is one of the most disabling types of this disease. Unfortunately, there have been no human studies studying CBD's effects on Alzheimer's disease as of this writing.

Karl published a preliminary study in 2012 suggesting that the endocannabinoid system may have a significant role in treating Alzheimer's disease [8]Karl T, Cheng D, Garner B, Arnold JC. “The therapeutic potential of the endocannabinoid system for Alzheimer’s disease. Expert Opin Ther Targets.” 2012;16:407–20, … Continue reading. Furthermore, the work indicates that cannabinoids have a number of anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective properties, making them highly attractive as an Alzheimer's treatment option.

6. Parkinson's Disease

There has been very limited research on CBD and its effects on Parkinson's disease. Still, some limited human studies have shown promise regarding the effect of CBD on Parkinson's disease in terms of human studies, so we cannot take anything for granted at this time.

According to a 2014 Brazilian research paper published in the journal PLOS ONE, CBD could help alleviate some symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease [9]Chagas, Marcos Hortes N., et al. “Effects of Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Patients with Parkinson’s Disease: An Exploratory Double-Blind Trial.” Journal of Psychopharmacology, 18 Sept. 2014, … Continue reading.

Using the Parkinson's disease quality of life questionnaire, 21 Parkinson's disease patients were treated with placebos, 75 mg per day of CBD or 300 mg per day of CBD for six weeks. And after that time period, those in the 300 mg per day CBD group were shown to have improved their quality of life significantly.

However, keep in mind that no placebo-controlled study has been conducted to date. Furthermore, it was carried out on a very small scale with only 21 participants. So this study reveals the need to have a larger placebo-controlled study to verify the findings gathered from this study. But no matter what, CBD may provide relief for those who suffer from this degenerative condition.

7. Epilepsy

In the case of epilepsy, CBD can be shown to be an effective treatment option in the majority of states due to its long-established efficacy and approval as such.

CBD supplementation has been shown to reduce the frequency of seizures in individuals with epilepsy in a number of studies. However, many of these studies have not been controlled by a placebo. Yet, in 2016, GW Pharmaceuticals announced that its Epidiolex, a liquid form of CBD that is derived from plants, had shown positive results in multiple studies. [10]O’Connell B, Gloss D, Devinsky O. “Cannabinoids in treatment-resistant epilepsy: A review.” Epilepsy & Behavior. 2017; 70(B):341-348, … Continue reading

These studies compared the effectiveness of Epidiolex against placebo in randomized trials in patients with Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (LSG) and Dravet Syndrome (DS). Among the patients in the DS study, there were 120 patients and 171 patients in the LSG study.

The patients were divided into two groups, with one group receiving a placebo. In contrast, the other received either a 20 mg/kg/day Epidiolex treatment for 14 weeks (DS) or a 10 mg/kg/day Epidiolex treatment for 12 weeks (LSG).

Both Epidiolex treatment groups have significantly improved in decreasing seizure frequency compared with placebo, with the majority of side effects reported by the Epidiolex treatment groups being mild to moderate in intensity.

A number of positive findings were reported during the research, which led to Epidiolex being approved by the FDA for both Fast Track and Orphan Drug designations for DS, LGS, and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

Many More

It's not a surprise that so many people are opening their eyes to the benefits of cannabidiol, considering its potential to treat various health conditions and diseases above.

There are still plenty of other health conditions that CBD products may be able to help and countless more that are yet to be studied by researchers, but there are numerous indications that CBD products may help.

How Does CBD Work?

In spite of the fact that research into how CBD works continues to take place, we now know much more than we did twenty years ago about how it works.

CBD works by attaching itself to receptors inside your body that are found on several cells. By doing this, CBD can produce many of its effects.

Almost every cell of the human body has cannabinoid receptors that perform complex functions throughout the body. Collectively, the endocannabinoids that act on the receptors and their enzymes work together to form what we call the Endocannabinoid System (ECS).

An endocannabinoid system is an extremely intricate and complex network of cell receptors that relate to a wide range of functions within the body. These receptors are particularly abundant within the inner workings of the central nervous and immune systems.

Among its primary functions, the ECS can be observed to respond to immune responses, regulate homeostasis, recover from stress, and protect the nervous system from various harmful factors such as infections.

It has been hypothesized that a deficiency of endocannabinoids can result in pain, nausea, and inflammation, among other conditions. Also, drugs and treatments such as chemotherapy can cause adverse effects due to this deficiency.

Now you're probably wondering why cannabinoids found in cannabis plants seem to affect every system in our bodies.

We might not believe it, but the human body produces compounds called endocannabinoids that are very similar to those that are present in hemp plants. And the word “endocannabinoid” comes from two Greek words meaning “internal cannabinoid,” which is an appropriate indication given that these are cannabinoids that occur naturally in our bodies.

During the combustion process of cannabis, there are cannabinoids that are present. These cannabinoids act as agonists, which means that once they are absorbed into the body and bind themselves to receptors, they produce a biological response.

In accordance with the same principles as those of naturally occurring compounds, cannabinoids can react with the membrane receptors of cells of the ECS in order to cause them to respond.

There are many ways in which external cannabinoids can affect our bodies and ECS in this way, and we do not know the exact mechanisms involved in these effects. But the research currently being conducted on the therapeutic effects of CBDs provides us with more and more insight into how they work.

The Cannabinoid Receptors

We've talked about how CBD works by binding to different receptors in the endocannabinoid system, but what are those receptors?

A cannabinoid receptor is part of a group of receptors on cell membranes called G protein-coupled receptors. They're activated by three kinds of compounds:

  1. Endocannabinoids, the compounds that are naturally created within our bodies.
  2. Plant cannabinoids, like the ones found in marijuana.
  3. Synthetic cannabinoids, like HU-201.

Currently, we have information about two different cannabinoid receptors within the body. Preliminary research indicates that there may also be additional cannabinoid receptors within the body. Still, for the moment, we're going to focus on those two we know definitively to exist. They are called CB1 and CB2.

The CB1 Receptor

The CB1 receptor was discovered by Cambridge University researchers in 1990. It is the endocannabinoid receptor found mainly in the central nervous system. There are various compounds that are found in cannabis that can bind to these receptors throughout the brain and the central nervous system. However, THC has a particular affinity for these receptors and can bind to them with very high strength.

In light of the fact that CB1 receptors are predominantly based within the central nervous system, it is easier to understand why it has been suggested that THC may be beneficial for people suffering from nausea, pain, and mood disorders, including anxiety and depression.

The CB2 Receptor

Following the discovery of the CB1 receptor, the CB2 receptor was discovered in 1993. In contrast to the CB1 receptor, the CB2 receptor is primarily found within the immune system and the tissues of various organs. The central nervous system is also home to these receptors, although in a much lower concentration than the CB1 receptors.

A substantial concentration of CB2 receptors can be found in the gastrointestinal system and immune cells, which are responsible for regulating inflammation.

Other Methods of Action

The behavioral responses of cannabinoid receptors in the body are not the only way in which CBD interacts with the body. One of the other ways CBD interacts with the body is by interacting with the body's vanilloid, adenosine, and serotonin receptors.

  1. As nerve receptors, vanilloid receptors are responsible for detecting and regulating heat within the body. They play a crucial role in how our body reacts when we are hot or cold. You can thank your vanilloid receptors for facilitating the response between your hand and the brain when you have ever grabbed a hot pan.
  2. Among other things, adenosine receptors play a number of important roles in the body, including the regulation and contraction of blood vessels, the release of T-cells, as well as the process of neuroprotection.
  3. The serotonin receptors are responsible for regulating our mood, controlling stress, and regulating a wide range of other biological and neurological processes, including memory, learning, appetite, cognition, aggression, as well as a great variety of other cognitive processes.

All of these receptors are affected in some capacity by CBD. However, the details of these interactions are not understood in the same way as the interactions of CBD with the central nervous system.

The Entourage Effect

It has been shown that CBD can be beneficial when it is used on its own to treat many diseases. However, research suggests that CBD products can be even more effective if combined with other cannabinoids, such as THC or phytocannabinoids.

There is an action known as the entourage effect, which refers to the idea that different cannabinoids work together in concert to produce the desired effects in the body.

Taking this concept into account, there is a movement advocating the use of whole plants in medicine, which is the use of the whole plant to treat a variety of ailments in a better and more effective manner.

There are a lot of products available on the market that contain little to no THC. However, these products still contain a wide range of plant compounds that can be found in cannabis Sativa.

An entourage effect is the goal of these products, which utilize a whole range of natural plant compounds, including cannabinoids, terpenes, phytonutrients, waxes, amino acids, minerals, and much more.

Unlike products that contain THC, they do not cause psychoactive effects and are more versatile.

In What Forms is CBD Available?

It has been estimated that the demand for CBD products has multiplied by 400% in the past few years. Still, marijuana producers have previously centered their efforts solely on producing high-THC strains intended to give users a profound psychoactive experience. After all, that is what marijuana buyers were seeking at the time.

In recent years, a wide variety of different CBD products have been offered by growers around the world. Hemp plants are naturally high in CBD and low in THC, which makes them a perfect crop to grow for CBD products.

Since CBD products are available in various forms, you need to understand the differences between them in order to purchase the best CBD product for you.

1. Tinctures

A tincture is made by suspending its active ingredients within another substance, usually alcohol or another oil. Companies such as Elixinol manufacture liposomal hemp oil, which is a type of hemp oil that is known as liposomal hemp oil.

The proper way to utilize these tinctures is to take them sublingually (under the tongue) for the best results. Remember to allow the liquid to sit under your tongue for the right amount of time as directed. This is because small molecules can be absorbed by this method without causing the breakdowns that usually occur during digestion. As a result, it is imperative to follow this principle.

Depending on the individual's needs and the condition they are suffering from, there is a typical dosage range for these medicines between 25 mg and 1000 mg.

The CBD tinctures are available in both flavored and unflavored versions. Many users prefer the flavored tinctures to the unflavored ones since CBD has a somewhat bitter taste to it. Adding flavors can help you to mask this taste.

2. Concentrates

There is a type of CBD tincture known as a concentrate that contains a much higher amount of CBD than a standard CBD tincture. Typically, people who are new to CBD are advised to start low and work their way up. Others may prefer higher CBD dosages, so CBD concentrates are a perfect choice.

3. Capsules

Those who prefer to avoid the unpleasant taste associated with some tinctures and concentrates can also take CBD oil as a pill. As a bonus, CBD capsules are easily transportable and often in the same form as other dietary supplements, making it easy for people to become accustomed to taking CBD capsules.

4. Sprays

A CBD spray is a liquid medication that can be applied topically and is often taken similarly to tinctures. Many CBD spray manufacturers advise that the spray be applied directly under the tongue to ensure maximum bioavailability.

5. Ointments and Salves

Traditionally, hemp-derived products have been highly regarded for their ability to improve the skin, so it was no wonder that CBD products were available in a topical form. The CBD Cool Stick, made by Wildflower, is one of many products that are used to target specific trouble areas. A product of this type is the CBD Cool Stick, a lip balm and a cream.

5. Edibles

Edibles are another popular method of using CBD (Cannabidiol) for a wide range of medical purposes, offering users a tasty and interactive method of taking CBD to reap its health benefits. A wide variety of edibles are available, often designed to mimic popular flavors and textures such as chocolate, candy, or desserts.

6. Soaps

As well as acting as a skin moisturizer, hemp oil-infused soaps are also used by hemp activists to promote clear and healthy skin. They contain both natural fats and ingredients to nourish and enhance the skin's natural functions while providing gentle cleaning. Companies like Ananda Hemp and Wildflower offer several CBD soaps that are available for purchase.

7. Vaporizers

It's no secret nowadays that CBD oil is increasingly popular as a way of ingesting CBD products, and vaporizers are becoming the preferred method of doing so. This is because CBD oil is available in disposable vape pen cartridges, which are attached to a vaporizer battery and heated to release the CBD as a vapor.

As e-cigarettes become increasingly popular, it's no wonder that more and more people are also opting to vaporize CBD oil. Many companies are taking advantage of this trend by offering products such as the Lotus Vape Pen from Happy Buddha.

A number of studies have also revealed that CBD, when smoked, is extremely bioavailable, preventing the breakdown that occurs during digestion.

Does CBD Oil Get You High?

It's important to understand that CBD oil does not get you high. It's not psychoactive, so while THC can produce a noticeable high, CBD oil does not produce such an effect.

Most CBD users say that they feel calm and relaxed after consuming their daily dose of CBD. Yet, every person is different when it comes to what they experience. Taking CBD oil regularly may ease one's ability to relax, while others may report an enhanced feeling of alertness after taking CBD oil regularly.

For those who use CBD oil and other products to treat their various illnesses, the fact that CBD products do not produce a high makes them very happy. The purpose of this is to warn parents of young children and anyone who wants to keep themselves free from supplements that can hinder their ability to work, drive, or perform their daily activities.

Is CBD legal?

It is likely that only a matter of time before the use of CBD supplements is fully legalized in the United States, considering all the science that supports its potential benefits. However, the position of CBD in the United States at the moment is a bit fuzzy.

In accordance with the Controlled Substances Act, all cannabis-related products are categorized as schedule I substances, which are deemed not to have any accepted medical value by the government. Further clarification by the DEA on CBD has been provided, stating that the CBD schedule will remain unchanged until CBD manufacturers can produce CBD products without containing other cannabinoids such as THC.

Although this is the government's stance, it is counter to the Agricultural Act of 2014 (Farm Bill), which legalized industrial hemp production through a pilot program open to selected farmers only. As a result of this program, farmers can grow hemp plants, process them, and then sell the products they produce.

Currently, hemp farmers have been permitted to cultivate plants containing CBD, which is present in both hemp plants and marijuana plants. According to the Farm Bill, hemp farmers are allowed to grow CBD-containing plants. The FDA does not regulate the manufacture of these nonprescription CBD products, so the market is rife with snake oil because, like all dietary supplements, they are unregulated by the FDA.

However, CBD products derived from the hemp plant and those extracted from marijuana plants are still illegal in almost all states throughout the nation.

Conclusion

The number of legitimate companies that produce quality CBD products is endless, so be sure to do your research before making any purchases, and only take dietary supplements created with the best standards and of the highest quality.

References

References
1 Bridgeman, M. B., et al. (2017, March). “Medicinal Cannabis: History, Pharmacology, And Implications for the Acute Care Setting.” Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 2017;42(3):180–188, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5312634/
2 Massi, P., Solinas, M., Cinquina, V., & Parolaro, D. (2013). “Cannabidiol as potential anticancer drug.” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 75(2), 303-312, https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04298.x
3 Bergamaschi MM, Queiroz RH, Chagas MH, de Oliveira DC, De Martinis BS, Kapczinski F, et al. “Cannabidiol reduces the anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in treatment-naïve social phobia patients.” Neuropsychopharmacology, 2011;36:1219–1226, https://www.nature.com/articles/npp20116.
4 Blake DR, Robson P, Ho M, Jubb RW, McCabe CS. “Preliminary assessment of the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a cannabis-based medicine (Sativex) in the treatment of pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis.” Rheum. 2006;45:50–52, https://academic.oup.com/rheumatology/article/45/1/50/1788693.
5 Torres, S., Lorente, M., Rodriguez-Fornes, F., Hernandez-Tiedra, S., Salazar, M., Garcia-Taboada, E., . . . Velasco, G. (2011). “A Combined Preclinical Therapy of Cannabinoids and Temozolomide against Glioma.” Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, 10(1), 90-103, https://aacrjournals.org/mct/article/10/1/90/90939/A-Combined-Preclinical-Therapy-of-Cannabinoids-and.
6 Massi, P., Solinas, M., Cinquina, V., & Parolaro, D. (2013). “Cannabidiol as potential anticancer drug.” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 75(2), 303-312, https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04298.x.
7 Russo, E. B. (2008). “Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management”,  4(1), 245–259, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2503660/.
8 Karl T, Cheng D, Garner B, Arnold JC. “The therapeutic potential of the endocannabinoid system for Alzheimer’s disease. Expert Opin Ther Targets.” 2012;16:407–20, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1517/14728222.2012.671812.
9 Chagas, Marcos Hortes N., et al. “Effects of Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Patients with Parkinson’s Disease: An Exploratory Double-Blind Trial.” Journal of Psychopharmacology, 18 Sept. 2014, https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0269881114550355.
10 O’Connell B, Gloss D, Devinsky O. “Cannabinoids in treatment-resistant epilepsy: A review.” Epilepsy & Behavior. 2017; 70(B):341-348, https://www.epilepsybehavior.com/article/S1525-5050(16)30625-4/fulltext
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