Nearly 66 percent of the genetic mutations that turn into cancer are caused by ‘random replication errors’ during ongoing cell replacement process
Speculations high on new particle discovery with LHC
Researchers at CERN are preparing to unveil the data from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), after hiatus of three years of the confirmation of the existence of the Higgs Boson. The researchers said that the probability of finding something new is highest.
Scientists have been sifting through the debris from the smash-up of two beams of protons, so as to have hint of previously undiscovered particles. Last year, scientists were able to detect more photon particles than expected.
According to the scientists, there could be a possibility of new, heavy particles that is around six times heavier than the Higgs Boson, which was discovered at CERN in 2012. The discovery would be great interest because the Standard Model, which is considered to be the most widely accepted theory of particles physics, does not explain everything being observed by us in the world.
To cite an example, the model has no explanation for dark matter that is responsible for around 27% of the universe. Scientists at CERN are aware of this matter owing to which they have been looking for new physical phenomena that could provide new understanding of the cosmos.
Prof Stefan Söldner-Rembold, head of particle physics at the University of Manchester, said that more data is required in order to be sure that the signal does not go away. It has been said so as signals have come and gone since the time the LHC was first went online in September 2008.
“The big reason that people are excited about this bump is that both experiments (Atlas and CMS) saw a hint in roughly the same place. But even this is not completely unlikely”, said Prof. Stefan.
By the end of this summer, the results of the new experiments will be presented at a conference in Chicago. But CERN scientists have already gathered more data this year than they have in the previous year.
The researchers said that if there is a new particle than it would decay to two photons and it should have a spin of either zero or two. If the particle’s spin is zero like the Higgs Boson then it could be heavier than the particle discovered in 2012.
If the particle is carrying a spin of two then it could be a form of the graviton, which is a completely theoretical particle that passes on the fourth force, gravity. The Standard Model also does not explain about the gravity.
Prof Söldner-Rembold said that if there is something that could be added in a known theory of physics would be of great excitement as something very important has been left not being understood. Also, if the particle is confirmed then the researchers think that it should not be alone.
The researchers said that there is a lot of data that is still to be explored at the LHC. Also, the researchers feel that whether the discovery turns out to be true or not has to be seen and would take decades.
Along with this, the researchers have mentioned that the way the Higgs Boson has been discovered, it is never going to lead to discoveries every year.
The study paper published in the scientific journal Phys News informed...
Employees of MEPh are the first to develop detectors of transition radiation, able to split hadrons (protons, K-mesons and pi-mesons) in record-high energy fields from 1 to 6 TeV. Transition radiation (TR) is a form of electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle passes through inhomogeneous media, which for the first time was demonstrated theoretically by Ginzburg and Frank in 1946. It was detected experimentally at the Yerevan Physics Institute in 1959.
Detectors of transition radiation are usually used for extraction of electrons from the hadron background, and their working field is limited to hadrons by gamma factor ~500. At higher gamma factor values, the transition radiation extraction from hadrons becomes significant, but in reality, it becomes saturated under gamma factors of ~ 3*103. However, in many studies of cosmic rays and modern and perspective accelerators, there are problems of identification of particles in the field of gamma factors up to ~105. This is not an easy task, and currently, there are no detectors able to split particles with a unit charge in the field of gamma factors.
Detectors of transition radiation for identification of hadrons in the TeV field of energies would offer opportunities to solve many tasks in experiments on accelerators and in cosmic research. For example, this is a key methodology in a planned experiment to study hadron formation at a low angle at the Large Hadron Collider. Additionally, such technology would contribute to studies of fundamental processes of quantum chromodynamics at a small angle, as well as the measurement of hadron contents in experiments at the LHC. It allows improved accuracy in detecting of particles with energies up to 1017 eV, where there is a change in the behavior of particles' range.
Properties of detectors of transition radiation are largely defined by radiators of transition radiation. Theoretical applications of different materials and structures for radiators of transition radiation will be studied during the project. The working prototypes transition radiation detectors will be developed and tests on particle beams will be conducted.
According to a story published on the topic by Reuters News, Scientists at Europe's physics research center CERN are preparing to unwrap the biggest trove of data yet from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), three years after they confirmed the existence of the elusive Higgs boson. "In the life of accelerator physics there are few moments like the one we are living through," said Tiziano Camporesi, leader of the CMS experiment at CERN. "This is the time when the probability of finding something new is highest."
The Higgs boson, whose discovery secured the Nobel prize for physics in 2013, answered fundamental questions about how elementary matter attained mass. But it did not solve the riddle of what's missing from the "standard model" of physics. The standard model, an elegant ensemble of equations summarizing everything known about nature, leaves some questions hanging, Camporesi told Reuters at CERN in Geneva. One puzzle is why gravity doesn't seem to fit into the standard model. Another question is why there is far more matter in the universe that the 4 percent we can see.
A report published in UPI News revealed, Europe's largest particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider, is back in action. According to two newly published studies, its latest round of experiments yielded three new "exotic" particles and confirmed the existence of a fourth. The newly identified particles are considered "exotic" because they contain four quarks, the building blocks of all matter. Particle physicists used to believe all particles were composed of mesons, a quark-antiquark pair, or baryons, three quarks -- but no more than three quarks. A litany of discoveries have shown otherwise.
The exotic particles are named for their reconstructed mass in megaelectronvolts -- a single electronvolt is approximately 160 zeptojoules, a tiny fraction of a joule. The particle X(4140), for example, has a mass of 4,140 megaelectronvolts. Scientists had previously observed X(4140); the latest findings confirm its existence. Three heavier exotic particles spotted by CERN physicists -- X(4274), X(4500) and X(4700) -- had never been seen before.
Even though the four particles all contain the same quark composition, they each have a unique internal structure, mass and their own sets of quantum numbers."